Government to Scrap Import Duties on Staple Foods

28 February, 2011 Uncategorized No comments The government will
soon abolish import duties for 30 staple commodities starting from the end of
this month amid rising concerns over a possible food supply shortage at home
and surging food prices in the world market.


Trade Minister Mari Elka Pangestu said that
the commodities included wheat, animal feed, fertilizer, soybean as well as
many others. “There will be a time frame for the scrapping of the import
duties, so once global food prices have stabilized, there will be an evaluation
as to when it would be revoked,” Mari told as reported by the Jakarta Post.

Coordinating Minister for the Economy Hatta
Rajasa said the Finance Ministry would issue a regulation on the abolishment of
the import tariffs of these 13 commodities. “The team has suggested 30 types of
staple commodities that are all food-related. We want to safeguard the people’s
needs as well as the industries’ at the same time,” Hatta told reporters at the
same event.

Mari added that the regulation would be
similar to that in 2008, when the finance minister issued a new ruling to
stabilize prices in the midst of surging food prices. The United Nation’s food
agency has said that food prices hit a new high last December, even higher than
prices in 2008.

Surging food prices have resulted in mounting
inflationary pressures, with headline inflation reaching a 20-month high of
almost 7 percent in December mainly due to a nearly 18 percent spike in
volatile food prices.

The government is also finalizing a
presidential regulation on the procurement of fertilizers and seeds. “This is
regulated in a presidential regulation to ensure food stocks and supply so that
extreme weather will not delay planting season,” he added. Hatta has also said
that the government would intensify market operations to ensure food stocks and
supply as well as to stabilize prices.

“Social security programs, rice subsidy and a
low-cost market will be mobilized and intensified as soon as possible,” he

State-Owned Enterprises Minister Mustafa
Abubakar urged state-owned enterprises to organize a low-cost market and sell
staple foods at low prices in the hopes of stabilizing the surging food prices.
“There are a number of state firms spread throughout the archipelago. Their
role in keeping prices stable has been effective, so we want to utilize them to
sell rice, cooking oil, sugar and other staple food at low prices,” he said,
adding that he hoped the markets would open at the beginning of February at the

Food security program consist of:

1. Abolishing import duties for 30 types of staple
commodities such as wheat, animal feed and  fertilizer.

2. Allocating Rp 3 trillion to mitigate impacts from climate change and
to curb prices through market operations.

3. Procuring 1.5 million tons of rice through State Logistics Agency
(Bulog), partly through imports.

4. Providing 1,000 dryers in rice production centers across the country.

5. Developing 2 million hectares of agricultural land in Sumatra,
Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Merauke (Papua).

6. Procuring fertilizer and seeds for farmers through a presidential

7. Giving Bulog flexibility to buy unhusked rice from farmers through a
presidential regulation.

Trade Minister Mari Elka Pangestu also mentioned
detail of the 57 tariff posts cover four commodities namely fertilizer, animal
feed, soybean and wheat. "The regulation will be published tomorrow
(Friday) and be effective immediately afterwards," she told reporters,
referring to the Finance Minister Regulation (PMK) number 241 on import duties.
The regulation requires 2,165 food and non-food tariff posts to be subjected
import duties, but 57 of them will be freed from the duties until next year. "Within
one year we will review and evaluate whether or not it is necessary to apply
the duties back again or not," Mari said.

Hatta Rajasa said the new ruling is expected to add food supply and provide
sufficient food stocks for the country’s over 230 million population. "It’s
also a way of managing inflation and high price pressures on food. Import
duties will be passed through to the people. "If wheat is subjected to 5
percent import duties then the people will pay 5 percent more for the wheat
products they bought," Hatta added.

opposes plan to abolish import duties

The Association of Indonesian Farmers (HKTI)
has protested a government plan to abolish import duties on staple foods,
saying it will damage the country’s economy. "The plan to abolish import
duties on staple foods will not only be detrimental to Indonesia’s economy as a
whole due to the loss of revenue from the duties themselves, but it will also
affect the livelihood and the future of Indonesian farmers", the
association’s head of the trade, Ismed Hasan Putro, said Antara news agency

The government has planned to revoke import
duties on staple foods in anticipation of soaring staple food prices due to
climate changes that have disrupted planting and harvesting periods.

Ismed said that the duty exemptions could
temporarily curb inflation, but added that the plan was “premature”, saying
most developed countries had not lifted their non-tax barriers to protect their
domestic agricultural sector. "The government’s plan to stifle inflation
should be drawn comprehensively and transparently. National interests, especially
the interests of those working within the agricultural sector, must become the
government’s first priority," Ismed said.

FAO assists with poultry market restructuring

Human infections with H5N1 highly pathogenic
avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI) have occurred more frequently in the greater
Jakarta area of Indonesia than any other area of the world. Pathogen
amplification and the progressive accumulation of virus along the poultry
market chain, that is, from poultry farms to live-bird markets, may be
contributing to the higher human infection rate observed in greater Jakarta. To
reduce H5N1 HPAI risk to humans (and to an extent to other animals too)
following a cluster of human cases in Jakarta in January 2007, the DKI Jakarta
provincial government decided to reduce the movement of live birds into Jakarta
by issuing a ban on the entry of live birds within the city limits and
organized a limited number of large relocation centers where poultry can be
gathered and slaughtered (Regional Regulation No. 4/2007). The government also
banned the rearing of backyard poultry within the province, a move that reduces
the localized infection foci that could be serving as hotspots for interaction
between animals, caregivers and masses of consumers.

In Jakarta, and more generally in Indonesia,
poultry production and the consequent marketing of live and slaughtered animals
is predominantly private sector driven. After H5N1 HPAI struck the country, it
became evident that the larger operators had fared better than the smaller ones
and, to their dismay, had increased their market share at the expense of
smaller businesses. This scenario created resistance among poultry producers,
collectors and slaughterers to acquiesce to new government-imposed regulations
because they viewed it as a means for the government and larger private
companies to constrain their business prospects and long-term viability.

Historically, and in addition to the
abovementioned, the smaller poultry-related operators have been much less
willing to adapt to modern hygiene and sanitation standards, leading to unsafe
poultry market practices in large, concentrated urban populations. With this in
mind, the government is making special efforts to ensure that measures taken in
the context of reducing HPAI are sensitive to the concerns of small-scale
poultry actors as in the reorganization of the collection yards and
slaughtering facilities in Jakarta as part of a poultry market restructuring

With the assistance of CREATE, a local NGO,
the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) assisted
local administration officials to assess the preparedness and increase the
competency of the different poultry relocation centers and to analyze their
organizational and training needs. FAO proposed practical solutions through the
development of training modules and standard operating procedures, and assisted
in the implementation of the training and organization of individuals involved
in poultry market restructuring.

Thanks to the support provided by the FAO
programme in Indonesia, management staffs of the poultry relocation centers in
Jakarta have a better understanding of the needs of the collectors and
slaughterers. They are now better prepared to handle the hundreds, if not
thousands, of small collectors and slaughterers who will eventually make use of
these facilities. Additionally, they will facilitate training and assist the
collectors and slaughterers to operate the facilities and equipment in proper
and efficient ways. The management will also ensure that the collectors and
slaughterers abide by the biosecurity and food safety regulations. Standard
operating procedures are now adapted to local requirements, thus resulting in
optimization of facilities usage so that Jakarta consumers do not face supply
disruptions or food safety problems.

further information please read Poultry Indonesia magazine.


Trend Konsumsi Unggas
Perubahan kebiasaan makan di rumah lebih dari sekadar respon terhadap resesi.
Ini merupakan trend jangka panjang dan struktural yang harus diantisipasi oleh
para pelaku industri perunggasan. Ada satu trend yang dilakukan konsumen yang
tidak dijumpai 12 bulan lalu, yakni mereka lebih banyak memasak dan makan di
rumah. Namun hal ini bukan sekadar karena resesi, namun lebih merupakan trend
yang akan terus berlangsung di masa depan.


Index harga konsumen untuk pangan tahun 2009
jatuh pada angka negatif untuk pertama kalinya dalam satu dekade karena konsumen
mencari pangan yang baru, mudah dan murah, yang mereka temukan di supermarket.
Pola makan masyarakat Amerika Serikat telah berubah. Jika pada dekade sebelumnya,
masyarakat lebih suka makan di luar rumah, kini kecenderungan itu telah menurun
dan akan terus demikian, menurut Harry Balzer, chief industry analyst and vice
president the NPD Group.


Puncak konsumsi masyarakat Amerika Serikat
terhadap makanan yang berasal dari restoran terjadi satu dekade lalu, pada
tahun 2001, dengan angka konsumsi mencapai 211 porsi makanan per kapita. Angka
tersebut tidak pernah naik lagi, bahkan akhir-akhir ini cenderung turun, dan
diperkirakan akan terus turun, demikian perkiraan Balzer.

Masyarakat industri yang terkait dengan
foodservice baru membicarakan hal ini tahun lalu ketika terjadi penurunan
tajam, yakni sekitar 9 porsi makanan per kapita per tahun. Namun sejatinya
angka puncak penggunaan foodservice telah tercapai jauh sebelumnya.

“Ini bukan sekadar trend dalam 3 tahun
terakhir, namun merupakan perubahan struktural selama 10 tahun,” ujar Balzer.
Jumlah porsi makanan yang dibeli orang setiap tahun terus meningkat dari 168
pada tahun 1984 menjadi 211 pada tahun 2001. Angka tersebut kemudian turun
terus hingga menjadi 195 porsi makanan pada tahun 2010.

pekerja wanita

Alasan turunnya pengguna foodservice dalam satu dekade terakhir, menurut Balzer di antaranya
adalah menurunnya angka partisipasi wanita dalam bursa kerja. Sejak tahun 1950,
jumlah persentase wanita di bursa kerja terus meningkat secara pasti sampai
dengan tahun 2000-an ketika terjadi penurunan 1,6%. Dan kini angka tersebut
pertumbuhannya tak lagi positif. Dengan demikian berakhir pula trend yang telah
memacu pertumbuhan pola makan di restoran.

menjadi favorit

Sarapan pagi memiliki arti penting bagi
industri foodservice. Kendati dari
segi porsi kecil, namun sarapan memiliki prospek yang cerah. Dari seluruh
makanan yang dibeli konsumen di restoran, jumlah porsi sarapan meningkat dari
25 per kapita pada tahun 2000 menjadi 32 porsi per kapita pada tahun 2010.
Bandingkan dengan 65 porsi makan siang per kapita dan 57 porsi makan malam per
kapita pada tahun 2010. Burger untuk sarapan merupakan trend yang sedang
tumbuh, dan bahan-bahan sarapan tradisional juga semakin penting pada menu
sandwich. “Masyarakat Amerika mengkonsumsi lebih banyak sandwich untuk sarapan.
Mereka meletakkan telur, daging dan bahan-bahan lain dan memakannya bersama,”

3 hal
terpenting bagi konsumen

Balzer menyampaikan poin-poin penting yang bisa
membantu mengembangkan rencana pemasaran produk ayam :

-  Konsumen masih terus
menyukai makanan yang baru, mudah dan murah.

-  Sandwich yang
dipersiapkan dan dimakan di rumah merupakan makanan yang paling banyak

-  Makanan beku
merupakan kategori yang tengah tumbuh di industri pangan rumahan

-  Sandwich dan burger
untuk sarapan merupakan kategori yang tengah tumbuh.

Discount dan masa promosi memainkan peran penting
untuk mengundang orang makan di luar.

“Jika anda ingin masyarakat mengkonsumsi
lebih banyak ayam, negara ini membutuhkan 3 hal : jenis baru, lebih mudah dan
lebih murah,” tandas Balzer.


 Sementara itu supply per kapita daging merah
dan daging unggas Amerika Serikat pada tahun 2011 diperkirakan akan lebih
rendah, turun 2,6 pound dibanding tahun lalu dan merupakan yang terendah sejak
1997, demikian laporan Ron Plain dari University of Missouri seperti dikutip
oleh the poultry

Diperkirakan, supply daging sapi per kapita
hanya akan mencapai 57,8 pound, angka terendah sejak 1952. Turunnya supply ini
terutama disebabkan oleh tingginya biaya pakan.

Sementara itu, produksi unggas 2011
diperkirakan meningkat 0,8% dibanding tahun 2010, menjadi 19,43 juta ton.
Ekspor pada tahun ini juga diperkirakan meningkat sebesar 2%, menjadi 3,3 juta

Secara keseluruhan, produksi total daging AS
selama tahun 2011 mungkin terkendala harga jagung yang tinggi. Perkiraan
terakhir dari departemen pertanian AS menyatakan produksi jagung 2010-2011
turun sebesar 5% dibanding periode sebelumnya yang menyebabkan meningkatnya
harga daging sapi, babi dan unggas. Dengan kondisi ekonomi yang masih sulit,
kemungkinan besar industri daging akan memangkas produksi jika harga bahan baku
terus meningkat.



Peran Asosiasi dalam Memajukan Perunggasan Indonesia Dinamika perunggasan Indonesia melibatkan pemikiran dan kerja keras banyak pihak, termasuk peran asosiasi. Karenanya, keterlibatan asosiasi dalam menumbuhkembangkan perunggasan di Tanah Air, menarik untuk ditelisik. Selama ini, sudah sejauh mana sumbangsih mereka? Read more

South Korean market needs 1.6 million tons of corn

31 January, 2011 Uncategorized No comments The corn market is still wide open and South Korea alone needs 1.6 million tons of corn per year, an official said as reported by Antara News. To meet the big need, the Gorontalo provincial administration had established cooperation, but still cannot meet the huge volume, Bantaeng Regent HM Nurdin Abdullah said when opening Syngenta Expo in Nipa-Nipa village, Pajukukang subdistrict, Bantaeng, last month.


The South Sulawesi provincial administration therefore will establish cooperation with South Korea, he said. The regent said the international cooperation will be mutually beneficial, especially when it comes to price. "We hope the price of the commodity would not drop during harvest season like what happened in the past," he said.

He hoped the seedling companies and production means Indonesia plays a role in not only giving attention of boosting production and improving quality, but also with regard to product marketing to prevent the growers from constant losses.

Regent Nurdin Abdullah called on the existing storage facilities to accept the products of the farmers which had dropped in price. Under these circumstances the growers would not suffer a loss because when their commodities entered the storage facilities, they can already enjoy funds provided by Bank Rakyat Indonesia. "The government bank provides 70 percent of the price. And when the price is good, the growers will receive the remainder," Nurdin Abdullah said.

The seedling have been developed to support four harvests a year, the regent said while hoping the irrigation system runs well following the completion of the Batu Massong dam in Tompobulu subdistrict. "The completion of the dam will hopefully be followed by the building of pipelines to support planting in the area," he added.

Indonesia to intensify ASEAN voice in climate change talks

Indonesia as chairman of ASEAN will intensify the voice of its member states in their position on climate change talks at the 17th Summit on Climate Change in Durban, South Africa, in 2011, a minister said.

"As of January 2011, senior officials from 10 ASEAN member countries will hold a meeting to prepare one ASEAN voice on climate change," Environment Minister Gusti Muhammad Hatta said on the sidelines of the 17th Summit on Climate Change in Cancun, Mexico, as quoted by Antara News.

The reason for intensified efforts was because ASEAN seems not to have one voice or stance in negotiations at the climate change summit, he said. "We are giving a sign that while Indonesia is holding the ASEAN Chair in 2011, it will further highlight ASEAN in dealing with climate change issues," he said.

Climate change issues to be discussed by ASEAN countries included mitigation and adaptation programs to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD plus). The Indonesian delegation said that they are working actively in the 17th Summit on Climate Change, while Indonesia was appointed a facilitator to lobby the participating countries on climate change mitigation and MRV (Measurement, Reporting, and Verification) in the negotiations.

The President of COP-16 Patricia Espinosa has trusted Indonesia, along with several strategic ministers of other countries, to facilitate negotiations in search for common ground among key countries. This measure was taken as the COP President perceived the negotiations will have the tendency to become stagnant.

The 16th COP President Patricia Espinosa explicitly requested assistance from facilitators to facilitate the negotiations on several issues regarding mitigation and MRV.
The Indonesian delegation saw the designation as the facility confirms the world’s recognition of Indonesian role capable of performing a constructive approach to several key countries.

Government to improve farm land

The government has set aside Rp4.2 trillion in funds to improve farm land damaged in natural disasters, a minister said as quoted by Antara News. Speaking to the press after the commemoration of the 53rd Plantation Day last month, Agriculture Minister Suswono said the government had prepared a sizable amount of funds to assist farmers whose farm land was damaged in a number of natural disasters. The funds would also be used to build and repair facilities and infrastructures in the agricultural sector including irrigation networks as well as to open new paddy fields, he said.

But the minister stopped short of revealing the amount of funds allocated to North Sumatra to repair farm land damaged by floods and the eruption of Mount Sinabung. "In total the funds reach Rp4.2 trillion," he said. Thousands of hectares of farm land were damaged due to a number of natural disasters including flash floods in Wasior, West Papua, the Mount Merapi eruptions in Sleman, Yogyakarta, tsunami in the Mentawai islands, West Sumatra, and landslides in Banjarnegara, Central Java. In North Sumatra, the eruption of Mount Sinabung destroyed thousands of hectares of farm land in Tanah Karo.

Food estate program in Merauke to succeed

The government has expressed its optimism that its "Food Estate" program to be developed in Merauke, Papua, would be successful and become the solution of future food security in the country.

"We have calculated all aspects from natural resources to human resources, infrastructure and other facilities," agriculture minister Suswono said in his written address to a seminar on food estates held by the ecology faculty of the Bogor Institute of Agriculture lately as quoted by Antara News. A food estate is a concept of food production development which is done integratedly covering agriculture, plantation and animal husbandry in a vast area.

He said Merauke has been considered fit for a large-scale food estate developemnt as it has agricultural land reserves of 2.49 million hectares. For the food estate development program in Merauke called the Merauke Integrated Food and Energy Estate (MIFEE) a total of 1.6 million hectares of land has been provided. "For making the concept the agriculture ministry has conducted a lot of discussions involving experts and familiarized it among the local people," he said in a speech read out by the head of the ministry’s research and development, Achmad Suryana.

Merauke itself has so far become one of the agricultural development centers. Before, there has already been a Merauke Integrated Rice Estate program where agriculture development is being intergrated with animal husbandry and fishery to develop an effective and environmentally friendly farm business.

For the MIFEE a labor-intensive approach would be used like in the people’s nucleus plantation program. To suppress risks the management will be split into smaller units involving a lot of farmers but will remain under one management center. Based upon the pattern the products to be produced would later be processed and marketed by a private party.

"Farmers will also be given an opportunity to take part in the other supporting activities and will have shares," the minister said. He said the government has had an experience with the program in South Sumatra before but it has failed due to a lack of technical and human resources support.

The food estate in Merauke in the next five years is expected to be able to create minimally 250,000 hectares of new rice fields to produce an additional 2.5 million tons of unhulled dried rice. "Later we will strive to increase production minimally four percent to achieve sustainable food resilience," he said.

For further information please read Poultry Indonesia magazine.


Rusia Melarang Produk Ayam Beku Asosiasi industri
daging Rusia memperingatkan kemungkinan kelangkaan daging menyusul pengumuman
pemerintah yang hanya akan mengizinkan produk unggas dingin, bukan beku, untuk
dijual mulai bulan Januari 2011.

RIA Novosti melaporkan hal tersebut, mengutip
penyataan kepala Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection
and Human Welfare Rusia, Gennady Onishchenko. Menurutnya, transisi kebijakan
ini telah disetujui pada bulan Maret 2008, dan mulai 1 Januari 2011 Rusia tidak
akan lagi mengizinkan penjualan produk unggas beku karena dipandang tidak segar
sehingga kehilangan banyak nilai gizi dan keunggulan daging.

Penerapan peraturan dan larangan penggunaan
produk ayam beku telah diberlakukan pada produk makanan bayi sejak awal 2010. “Ini
bukan hal baru, setiap orang tahu akan hal ini. Dan informasi ini telah disosialisasikan
jauh sebelumnya. Seluruh dokumen telah didaftarkan ke Departemen Kehakiman.
Seluruh pertanyaan telah didiskusikan dengan para produsen, ilmuwan, akademisi,
serta keputusan ini dihasilkan dari analisa. “Saya menerima banyak surat dari
para gubernur yang menyatakan rasa terima kasih dan dukungannya akan kebijakan
ini dan menjamin produsen unggas Rusia bisa menyediakan produk unggas dingin
kepada konsumen tanpa harus dibekukan,” ujar Onishchenko.

Ia juga mengatakan ada teknologi pendinginan
unggas dalam inert gas, yang
memungkinkan penyimpanan unggas selama 120 hari secara aman. “Anda boleh
mengimpor produk unggas, tetapi hanya dalam bentuk dingin, bukan beku,” ujarnya
ketika ditanya soal impor ayam Amerika Serikat.

Namun Sergei Yushin, ketua panitia eksekutif
Asosiasi Daging Nasional Rusia mengatakan bahwa apa yang disampaikan
Onishchenko sulit dipercaya. Ia menambahkan bahwa teknologi pendinginan (inert gas) yang mampu menyimpan daging
ayam selama 120 hari tersebut tidak ada. Deep
membantu produsen dan penjual menyimpan daging dalam periode yang
lebih lama, ujar Yushin. Lebih jauh Yushin mengungkapkan pertanyaan banyak
pihak tentang kemungkinan Rusia mengekspor produk dagingnya, karena produk ayam
dingin tidak mungkin diekspor. Larangan seperti ini belum pernah diberlakukan
dimanapun. Bagaimana mungkin Rusia menginginkan harmonisasi dengan norma-norma
dan kebijakan internasional untuk menarik investasi,” ujar Yushin

Lebih lanjut Yushin mengatakan bahwa larangan
impor produk unggas beku bisa meningkatkan produksi dalam negeri, namun bisa
juga memacu peningkatan harga produk unggas. Harga produk ayam beku lebih murah
dibanding produk dingin.

Senada dengan Yushin, Vladimir Fisinin, ketua
uni produsen unggas Rusia mengatakan dengan program pengembangan, larangan
masuk produk unggas beku ini akan bisa meningkatkan produksi daging unggas
Rusia hingga 4,5 juta ton dan telur hingga 50 milyar. Fisinin mengatakan,
produsen harus fokus bukan hanya pada pasar domestik, namun juga pasar
negara-negara tetangga dan zona Eropa. Ia menambahkan, Rusia memiliki potensi
menjadi pemasok produk daging, bukan hanya untuk negara-negara persemakmuran atau
negara sedang berkembang, namun juga untuk negara-negara Eropa.

Rusia memproduksi 2,37 juta ton daging unggas
pada tahun lalu, naik 15% dibanding tahun 2008, sedangkan produksi telur tahun
2010 meningkat sebesar 1,6 milyar butir. Fisinin juga menjelaskan bahwa sistem
pemprosesan telur belum berkembang. Produksi telur tidak merata di semua
wilayah Rusia. Wilayah Belgorod merupakan pusat produksi telur, sedangkan
kawasan lain belum mampu kembali ke level produksi pada tahun 1990-an.

Kendati ada harapan positif akan meningkatnya
produksi unggas lokal, namun Fisinin tidak setuju dengan larangan impor
menyeluruh karena hal ini akan mengurangi daya saing. “Saya tidak setuju dengan
larangan impor menyeluruh, karena impor merupakan media untuk mendukung kompetisi,”
tambah Fisinin.

produk unggas AS

Awal tahun 2010 lalu Rusia sempat melarang
masuk produk unggas dari Amerika Serikat dengan alasan ketidakamanan karena
penggunaan chlorine dalam proses pencuciannya. Namun dalam pertemuan pada bulan
Juni tahun lalu antara Presiden Barack Obama dan Dmitry Medvedev disepakati
bahwa Rusia mengangkat larangan itu mulai bulan September. Belum lagi
pencabutan larangan itu mengembalikan volume ekspor AS ke Rusia, kini Rusia
kembali menerapkan larangan impor produk daging beku.

Departemen pertanian AS dan kalangan industri
perunggasan AS mengatakan larangan impor daging beku Rusia tidak memiliki dasar
dan alasan keamanan pangan yang ilmiah. “Proses pembekuan merupakan metode yang
telah lama digunakan dan diterima secara internasional untuk mengamankan produk
pangan, termasuk produk unggas,” ujar juru bicara departemen pertanian AS.

Apakah larangan ini benar-benar karena keamanan
produk atau hanyalah ‘perselisihan dagang’, nampaknya Vladimir Putin berencana
membuat Rusia swa sembada daging unggas pada tahun 2015.

Tutupnya pasar Rusia merupakan kehilangan
besar produsen perunggasan Amerika Serikat. Larangan tahun 2010 saja telah
menyebabkan kerugian US$ 400 juta bagi industri perunggasan AS. Seperti
diketahui, Rusia merupakan pasar ekspor terbesar produk unggas AS, khususnya
untuk leg quarter.