www.poultryindonesia.com. Chicken breeding business can be regarded as a unique business. Because, This work concerns non-stop life as problems were. One of the problems often faced by poultry is disease.
The disease is still disturbing that effort is marek disease, or popular language commonly referred to as Marek's Disease (MD). Marek is a disease caused by the herpes virus group B. The disease is a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens are highly contagious. Marek disease is common in both commercial chicken farm businesses and local races, like the chicken Arab.
In commercial poultry farm, marek disease just create headaches breeder. This is because chicken marek disease usually do not show symptoms of a decrease in feed intake, looks still eat chicken. Strangely, although still eating chicken. However, never spawn. Worse disease that often leads to death, with paralysis preceded by.
The disease, usually found in young chickens, yet it can also attack the adult chicken. With a fairly high mortality rate, and a decrease in egg production. As a result of the disease on the farm can increase costs penangulangan. Caused by the influence of immunosuppressive (suppress the immune system, red).
The disease can be found in old chickens 4 weeks or more. With the most commonly found in the age 12-24 minggu. Despite the older chickens are still likely to have. Some researchers have reported the disease until age 60 minggu.week
Incident field, marek disease often appears around the age of 14 week to top, paralysis preceded and followed by increased mortality. Marek disease could be due to the emergence of vaccine failure or a disease inherited from the parent through the mating injection. Factors causing the failure of the vaccine itself could be caused by the way the vaccination is less than perfect.
Symptoms and transmission
The appearance of symptoms arising from marek disease can generally be divided into two types, namely : classical type and acute. In the classical type marek low mortality. Death can occur several days after infection, or a few weeks after the appearance of symptoms. In some cases, there are a number of chickens that suddenly resolves itself.
As a result of the attack marek classic type in the form of damage to the nervous edge, marked with the enlargement of the organs, nerves edge, often resulting in paralysis. Neural edges are often attacked respiratory nerve and neck region, wich is in the process of disruption and paralysis of the neck region pernafaasan. The disease can also attack the legs and wings, resulting in the occurrence of paralysis in the legs or wings that can occur in a unilateral (one of the legs and wings) Sertã bilateral (both legs and wings).
Being the type of acute marek, generally characterized by a depression which continues with ataxia, and progress to paralysis of the legs and wings. Some chickens will become dehydrated, diarrhea up in a coma. There are also experiencing blindness. So the eye's ability to accommodate the light intensity is reduced
The mortality rate of this type was quite high, sudden death often occurs without the appearance of first symptoms. Disorders of the body protruding from the disease is the formation of tumors in various organs such as the heart, liver, custom, spleen and kidney adapula available at. Usually, tumor was accompanied by the organ kebengkakan, eg, the liver may swell 3 kali dari ukuran normal, spleen may swell 5 times the normal size and the kidneys can 3 times the normal size.
Transmission of the disease can occur by direct or indirect contact. Direct contact occurs when the epithelium that contains software viruses or contaminate drinking water rations, transmission can also occur from the virus in feces and litter were consumed by chickens. Transmission of the disease can be very fast since it can be transmitted through the environment such as air, dust, equipment enclosure, force vector feeder barn and weevils.
Usually marek disease agents can persist in the body beetle, vector transmission by a beetle that can occur if the beetles consumed by chickens. Further, marek disease agents move from body to body beetle chicken. This is compounded by beetles perkembangbiakan facilities in farm area.
Kumbang dewasa maupun larva (known as worm destroyer plant) very fond of poultry feed, grains and wet corn, moist, moldy and in poor condition. Preferred place is litter bad condition, wet and damp very easily become disease, vector or carrier seedling diseases such as worms, tungau, Kutu caplak.
Beetles also very fond of hiding in the narrow gaps between steps of the barn wood barn preservation. To overcome the beetles spreading the disease agent, breeders must tighten biosecurity and sanitation / hygiene environment. Namely the cage wash disinfectant coupled with ectoparasites killer. Can also be accompanied by crushed grass around the cage. Because, rumput itu dapat menjadi tempat ‘mangkal’ unexpected beetle.
Diagnosis of the disease can be established based on the symptoms that appear, a change of some organs.
Chickens that have been affected by the disease is less likely to be treated. Antibiotic therapy, baik lewat oral (drink) and syringe, often even hasten death. Alternatives that can be done is to give supportive therapy such as vitamin, semisal vitamin C. Accompanied by a selection of infected chickens and spraying disinfectant in the cage.
Disease control can be carried out by vaccination in day old chicks or embryos that have been incubated for 18 day. Vaccination against marek in general can provide optimal protection. In the field of vaccination against the disease turns marek give satisfactory results. Protection from vaccination marek could reach 90 percent.
However, many also reported the failure of vaccination. With the cause of that is sometimes difficult to translate. Therefore, in general, the actual vaccination can not provide total protection against the disease. So in that way requires support from other factors such as sanitation / disinfection, optimal management practices and selection poultry.
Moreover, prevention can dilakukang with strictly boisecuriti, as well as supplements that can boost the immune system, such as providing the mineral selenium. Because, mineral that is the part that can not be separated as an essential element of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Where the enzyme is able to maintain the condition of the body cells and protect them from attacks of disease agents. Thus, damage to the body's cells can be prevented by early. In the market of organic selenium mineral usually combined with other minerals such as Seleno-methionine-cysteine and Seleno. Provision of selenium in the body it is important to block infection from the outside.
local chicken seems not to be replaced by another. Both in terms of
consumption as well as ornamental birds (for voice and beautiful feathers), chicken
It has its own local fans.
Indonesia as a country berkepulauan
turned out to save the wealth of diverse. One such property is
is the genetic diversity of local chickens scattered in every region
Based on the research that has been done
by researchers from the Institute for Livestock Research, Ciawi, mentioned that Indonesia
have 15 types of local chicken germplasm genuine existence
To 15 chicken type of which is
Chicken Cemani, Cotton chicken, ayam Pelung, ayam Arab Golden, Chicken Merawang, chicken
Arab Silver, Chicken Kedu, White chicken Kedu, Kate ayam, ayam Gaok, ayam Sentul,
ayam Wareng, ayam Tolaki, ayam Kalosi, Chicken Nunukan. However, beyond that is still
many types of local chickens owned by the beloved country. Will
diversity of local chickens would die away or even recognized
as belonging to another country? In the main time of writing this, we want
bring diversity and diversity of local chickens. Slightly
presents useful information that may add to our knowledge
many types of local chickens owned by the Indonesian state.
The existence of local chickens during this merely
for the consumption of hobbyists who love the beauty of the hair or even
beauty of sound which is owned by the local chicken. Just like chicken
Laughter that comes from East Kalimantan and chicken Pelung derived from
West Java is cultivated for its beautiful sound. However, current superbly
many were developed cultivation to consumption of meat and eggs
The local chicken.
have good nutritional value. It also has a more distinctive taste
and delicious than the kind of broilers and laying hens. Serat yang liat
and chewy characterize utamaya. In fact, every Eid identical chicken
with a variety of dishes.
have privileges than others, between : Ayam local lebih
disease resistant and easy to adjust to the weather in Indonesia. Besides
it was easy fodder obtained, can be maintained even rudimentary. Destination
maintain the main chicken egg is to be taken, meat, and
Given the preferences of local consumers chickens
very specific and genetic potential can not match the productivity
ayam ras, the goal of developing the local poultry is not to replace 100%
production from broilers. So that local chickens can not
replace chicken but complementary to meet protein needs
animal. In other words, supply and demand can be balanced in
order to maintain price stability that ultimately could provide benefits
adequate for the people engaged in agribusiness local chickens.
Local poultry will play a greater role in development
farms in the future, particularly in the fulfillment of animal protein.
The trend of increasing contributions poultry 20% (1970) be 65%
(2008) and in between 16,3% from local poultry. This is due to the
high production of poultry meat poultry industry driven by rising
national. Empirical facts BPS agricultural census year 2003 that 100% RTP-keeping
fowl, 98,5% Her local poultry. Consumption patterns continue
change towards organic food and healthy.
Development of local chicken is still
there are many obstacles. Insufficient availability of seeds of aspects
quality and quantity, not optimal utilization of local feed resources, lack
venture capital and limited access to financial institutions making the effort
beternak howl that date,. Not only that, ownership levels are still below
scale ekonomis (<300 breeding / breeders), also institutions have been formed
or groups of farmers are evenly distributed throughout the province and district / city.